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Real-Time simulation, solvers and methods

Distributed systems

   Summary: SSN solver usage for parallel simulation of large distribution power grid. Supported grid communication protocol overview.

Smart Grids

   Summary: Smart grid applications using eMEGAsim and SSN. PMU testing, WAMPAC, Power-HIL

SSN solver

Frequency Dependant line models

SSN iterations and MMC systems

Aircraft and Trains

Industrial Drives

Other References


Note: The authors of this User Documentation would like to acknowledge the contributions made to this effort by the papers below and their respective authors.



  • C. Dufour, S. Alma, S. Cuni, G. Scrosati, G. Valvo, G. Sapienza, "Renewable integration and protection studies on a 750-node distribution grid using a real-time simulator and a delay-free parallel solver", CIRED-2015, Lyon, France, June 15-18, 2015
  • C. Dufour, J. Mahseredjian , J. Bélanger, "A Combined State-Space Nodal Method for the Simulation of Power System Transients", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 26, no. 2, April 2011 (ISSN 0885-8977), pp. 928-935
  • W. Wang, J. Bélanger, C. Dufour, A. Douzdouzani, "A Novel and Flexible Test Stand for Medium Voltage Drives Using a Hardware-in-loop (HIL) Simulator", 2011 PCIM Europe Proceeding, Nuremburg, Germany, May 8-10, 2011
  • Ramos-Leanos, O.; Naredo, J. L.; Mahseredjian, J.; Dufour, C.; Gutierrez-Robles, J. A.; Kocar, I.; "A Wideband Line/Cable Model for Real-Time Simulations of Power System Transients," Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on , vol.27, no.4, pp.2211-2218, Oct. 2012
  • C. Dufour, J. Mahseredjian, J. Bélanger, J. L. Naredo, "An Advanced Real-Time Electro-Magnetic Simulator for Power Systems with a Simultaneous State-Space Nodal Solver", IEEE/PES T&D 2010 - Latin America, São Paulo, Brazil, Nov. 8-10, 201
  • C. Dufour, L.-A. Grégoire, J. Bélanger, "Solvers for Real-Time Simulation of Bipolar Thyristor-Based HVDC and 180-cell HVDC Modular Multilevel Converter for System Interconnection and Distributed Energy Integration", 2011, CIGRÉ conference proceedings, Recife, Brazil, April 3-8, 2011
  • H. Saad, C. Dufour, J. Mahseredjian, S. Dennetière, S. Nguefeu, "Real Time simulation of MMCs using the State-Space Nodal Approach", Proceedings of the IPST '13 conference - Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, July 18-20, 2013
  • C. Dufour, D. S. Nasrallah, "State-space-nodal rotating machine models with improved numerical stability", ELECTRIMACS-2017 Conference Proceedings, Toulouse, France, July 4-6, 2017
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