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This is a a generic inverse-time over-current relay based on positive sequence measurements. It operates with a time delay when the current magnitude is more than a minimum (pick-up) current value.

The typical characteristic of this relay is as shown below where operating time is tn when the ratio of current magnitude with pickup current is In. When the current magnitude is large enough, the operating time tends to become instantaneous tinst.

Model Description


The overcurrent relay model has two inputs as shown in the figure above. This model is based on positive sequence measurements of Imag (p.u.). Thus, this relay is compatible with the Imag I/O pins available for Positive Sequence Components.

When ImagIpickup, then a Reset = 1 will reset Trip and Trip' outputs to the Normal Condition as shown in Relay Logic table below.


The output Trip and Trip' are inverse to each other. When a fault is detected, the relay trip signals change from normal to fault condition as per the following Relay Logic table. These signals stay at Fault Condition until Reset =1 and Imag Ipickup.

Relay Logic

Normal Condition01
Fault Condition10


The overcurrent relay is based on the IEEE C37.112-1996 standard curve equation:

Where, TDSImag and Ipickup are the time delay setting, current magnitude and the pick-up current, respectively. The coefficients (a, b, and c) defines the Relay Characteristics curve to be used. There are ten characteristics curves available in this relay model based on U.S. and I.E.C. standard as shown in the figure below.

The overall settings of the relay mask is summarized as follows:

Simulation Time-Step (s)Simulation time-step in seconds.
Number of RelaysSpecify the number of relays to be modeled. The relay model takes vector inputs, and thus, can be used as more than one relay.
Relay characteristics (a, b, c)Select the desired inverse time characteristic. Only one type can be selected for one mask.
Pickup Current (p.u.)The minimum Ipickup current is a vector with values specified for each relay.
Time Dial Setting (s) The TDS is a vector with values specified for each relay.


See inside the subsystem Power System Protection Relays in demo PHASOR-02.

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